# Aerodynamics Board Exam Questions Reviewer

Here are the Aerodynamics Board Exam Questions reviewers in the Philippines and from Oxford, EASA, Volare, and other references.

NOTE: The last part of each item is the right answer.

1. density decreases, true speed of aircraft ___:

Increases

As air density decreases, the true airspeed of an aircraft increases due to the

reduced AIR RESISTANCE.

The aircraft needs to move faster to generate the same amount of lift. This relationship is why aircraft fly faster at higher altitudes, where the air is less dense.

2. 8. Which atmospheric conditions will cause the true landing speed of an

aircraft to be the greatest?

a.

Low temperature with low humidity.

b.

High temperature with low humidity.

C. High temperature with high humidity.

d.

Low temperature with high humidity.: C. High temperature with high humidity.

True airspeed (TAS) represents the true speed of an airplane through the air. As air

temperature and humidity increase, the density of the air decreases. As air density

decreases, true airspeed increases. Therefore, high temperature with high humidity

will cause an aircraft’s landing speed to be greatest.

3. 18. Frost covering the upper surface of an airplane wing will usually cause

a. The airplane to stall at an angle of attack that is higher than normal

b. The airplane to stall at an angle of attack that is lower than normal

c. Drag factors so large that sufficient speed cannot be obtained for take off

d. Coefficient of drag to increase abruptly: b. The airplane to stall at an angle of

attack that is lower than normal

See CL a curve

4. 24. Recovery from a stall in any airplane becomes more difficult when its

Center of gravity moves aft

Center of gravity moves forward

Elevator trim is adjusted nose down Rudder travel is improperly adjusted: –

Center of gravity moves aft

If CG at aft (tail heavy) – tail force cant do downwards

Higher moment (high distance of CP and CG) = mas mahirap macontrol

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5. 26. If airspeed is increased during a level turn, what action would be necessary to maintain altitude? The angle of attack

a. And angle of bank must be decreased

b. Must be increase or angle of bank decreased

c. Must be decreased or angle of bank increased

d. And angle of bank must be increased: c. Must be decreased or angle of bank

increased

Va = Vs sqrt n

L = V2 CL formula relations

6. 40. If a single rotor helicopter is in forward horizontal flight, the angle of

a. equal to the retreating blade

b. more than the retreating blade

C. less than the retreating blade

7. 42. It is an airfoil shaped attachment made of thin sheets of metal, plastic,

or composite material. This mount on the blade shanks and are primarily used

to increase the flow of cooling air to the engine nacelle.

Slinger ring

Townend Ring

8. Which force is not present during gliding? a. Thrust

b. Weight

c. Lift

d. Drag: A. THRUST

Lift is the force that opposes the weight of an aircraft and keeps it in the air.

9. Compared with an oblique shock wave at the same Mach number a normal

shock wave has a:

a. Higher expansion

b. Smaller compression

c. Smaller expansion

d. Higher compression: d. HIGHER COMPRESSION

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Kaya malaki pagbaba sa Mach number Compared to an oblique shock wave at the

same Mach number, a normal shock wave has a higher compression, which means

the flow is compressed more abruptly and the change in pressure and temperature

is greater.

10. An aerodynamic effect whereby the nose of an aircraft tends to pitch

downward as the airflow around the wing reaches supersonic speeds. CP

moves aft at high speed.: Mach tuck

11. It refers to the varying of wing chord using a uniform airfoil section

a. Airfoil Tapering

b. Planform Tapering

c. Section Tapering

d. Thickness Taperring: B. Planform tapering

12. On what instance does negative pressure coefficient occurs?

a. When local velocity is higher than freestream velocity

b. When the dynamic pressure is twice the pressure difference.

c. When the freestream velocity is higher than local velocity

d. When the local pressure is greater than freestream pressure.: A. When local

V is higher

13. The minimum speed at which intentional engine failures are to be performed.: Safe single-engine speed (Vsse)

14. Higher induced angle of attack can be obtained by using

a. lower taper ratio

b. larger wing area

c. higher wing aspect ratio

d. lower wing aspect ratio: D. Lower AR

Refer to CL vs AR graph

CL vs AOA – AR

15. When an airplane is at constant altitude bank, the stall speed will

a. remain the same as level flight condition.

b. increase as the square of the load factor

c. increase as the square root of the angle of bank

d. decrease as the square root of the load factor: C. Va or Vs turn = Vs sqrt n

16. In what flight condition are torque effects more pronounced in a single-engine airplane?

a. Low airspeed, high power, high angle of attack.

b. Low airspeed, low power, low angle of attack.

c. High airspeed, high power, high angle of attack.

d. High airspeed, low power, high angle of attack.: A. Low airspeed, high power,

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high angle of attack. Propeller is not generating as much thrust at low airspeed, so

the torque effect is more noticeable. The high power also contributes to the torque

effect, as the propeller is spinning faster and creating more torque. The high angle

of attack further exacerbates the torque effect, as the downwash from the wing is

pushing the propeller out of alignment with the engine.

17. When a blade flaps up, its CG will shift closer to the hub giving the blade

a tendency to?

a. speed up

b. slow down

c. stop

d. has no effect: A. SPEED UP

Moment = FD When a blade flaps up, its CG will shift closer to the hub and will speed

up. This is because the blade is now rotating in a smaller circle, so it needs to move

faster to maintain the same angular momentum.

18. For the maneuvering performance of airplanes, it is advantageous to have

the smallest r and the smallest w obtainable by

a. Have the highest load factor and the lowest possible velocity

b. Have the lowest load factor and the highest possible velocity

c. Have the highest load factor and the highest possible velocity

d. Have the lowest load factor and the lowest possible velocity: a. Have the

highest load factor and the lowest possible velocity

R = V2/g dqrt n2 -1

19. In steady symmetrical flight conditions, it is also called as the vertical flight

speed component

a. Rate of Descent

b. Rate of Climb

c. Rate of Ascent

d. Rate of Dive: A. Rate of Descent

L up = W down so bawal mag add ng Lift up, pwede lang down

20. Which maximum range factor decreases as weight decreases?

a. Stalling speed

b. altitude

C. airspeed d. angle of attack: C. Airspeed Low

W = low L = low V

21. If airspeed is increased during a level turn, what action would be necessary

to maintain altitude? The angle of attack

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a. and angle of bank must be decreased

b. must be increased or angle of bank decreased

c. must be decreased or angle of bank increased

d. and angle of bank must be increased: c. must be decreased or angle of bank

increased

balance n = L / W

22. To obtain the Smallest R and Fastest w:

n and V ___: n be as High as possible

V be as Low as possible

23. To increase the rate of turn and at the same time decrease the radius, a

pilot should

a. maintain the bank and decrease airspeed

b. increase the bank and increase airspeed

c. increase the bank and decrease airspeed

d. maintain the bank and increase airspeed: c. increase the bank and decrease

airspeed

24. This principle supports that the pressure on the surface depends on the

angle of deflection and upstream conditions.

A, First Order Theory

B. Second Order Theory

C. First Order Approximation

D. Second Order Approximation: C. First Order Approximation

25. The aircraft is said to be trimmed if?

a. The moment of aerodynamic center is zero

b. The rotation at the center of pressure is zero

c. The rotation at the center of gravity is zero

d. The rotation at the geometric center is zero: c. The rotation at the center of

gravity is zero.

An aircraft is said to be trimmed if it is flying in a stable and equilibrium condition.

26. When the angle of attack of a symmetrical airfoil is increased, the center

of pressure will:

A. Have very limited movement

B. Move aft along the airfoil surface

C. Remain unaffected

D. Move forward to the leading edge: C. Unaffected

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27. If airspeed is increased during a level turn, what action would be necessary

to maintain altitude? The angle of attack

a. and angle of bank must be decreased b. must be increased or angle of bank

decreased

c. must be decreased or angle of bank increased

d. and angle of bank must be increased: c. must be decreased or angle of bank

increased

28. Airplane wing loading during a level coordinated turn in smooth air depends upon the

b. rate of turn

c. angle of bank

d. true airspeed: C. angle of bank

L = S (else is constant)

n = L/(W/S)

29. One of the main functions of flaps during the approach and landing is to

a. decrease the angle of descent without increasing the airspeed

b. provide the same amount of lift at a slower airspeed

c. decrease lift, thus enabling a steeper than normal approach to be made

d. provide a substantial increase in drag to aid in landing.: B. provide the same

amount of lift at a slower airspeed.

By extending the flaps, the wing area and camber are increased, which generates

more lift at a lower airspeed.

30. What is the purpose of helical twist?

*

A reduction in blade angle towards the propeller tip to maintain best

thrust/torque ratio

An increase in blade angle towards the propeller tip to maintain best

thrust/torque ratio

A reduction in blade angle towards the propeller tip to maintain 16° AoA for

An increase in blade angle towards the propeller tip to 16° AoA for the entire

blade length: A reduction in blade angle towards the propeller tip to maintain 16°

AoA for the entire blade length

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Low pitch sa tip, kasi high V na dito

31. What is used to correct any tendency of the aircraft to move towards an

undesirable flight altitude?

*

Trim tabs

Spring tabs

Slats

Balance tabs: “Trim” tabs

32. What must a pilot do to maintain a constant indicated airspeed (IAS) during

a climb?

A. Increase true airspeed (TAS) as altitude increases

B. Decease true airspeed (TAS) as altitude increases

C. Keep true airspeed (TAS) constant as altitude increases

D. Keep ground speed (GAS) constant as altitude increases: Increase true

airspeed (TAS) as altitude increases

during “climb”

33. This type of airfoil cross-sectional shape is considered to be the optimum

practical choice because it gives the least drag per unit stress.

*

Double Wedge

Biconvex

Diamond

Flat Plate: Biconvex

“least drag” – optimum choice

34. It shows the various combinations of horizontal and vertical speeds that

supply the required energy to keep the rotor turning at a constant rpm.

*

Autorotational Performance Chart

Hovering Performance Chart

Climb Performance Chart

H/V Diagram: Autorotational Performance Chart

35. In a fixed propeller, what happens to the angle of

attack of the blade if forward speed increases?

a. Goes to zero

b. Increases

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c. Decreases

d. Remains fixed: c. Decreases

Draw rpm, TAS triangle

36. Phugoid motion occurs at nearly constant __ with varying speeds.: AOA

37. Prevent an increase of the boundary layer at the wing tips of swept wings-

: Wing fence

38. What remains if the equipped empty weight of the

aircraft is subtracted from its zero fuel weight?

b. Ramp weight

c. Cargo

39. An increase in which of the following will result in an increase in air

viscosity?

Pressure

Density

Temperature

Weight: Temperature

See formula to get viscosity in certain temperature

40. The true airspeed (TAS) is _____. 2pt

A. higher than the speed of the undisturbed airstream about the aeroplane.

B. equal to the IAS, multiplied by the air density at sea level

C. lower than the speed of the undisturbed airstream about the aeroplane

D. lower than the indicated airspeed (IAS) at ISA conditions and altitudes

below sea level: D. lower than the indicated airspeed (IAS) at ISA conditions and

altitudes below sea level

At high alt = High tas = low IAS

Sea level = TAS = IAS

Lower SL = low TAS = high IAS (kasi compact density here)

41. Regarding curved deflecting angles, what happens to the vertical component of force as the angle of deflection increases?

Assuming that all the other parameters remain constant. 2pt

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A. Increases

B. Decreases

C. No relationship

D. Remains the same: A. Increases

Fv = pav2 sin theta

42. Where on the surface of a typical aerofoil will flow separation normally start

at high angles of attack? 2pt

lower side trailing edge

upper side trailing edge: upper side trailing edge

43. NACA 4412 was used in the construction of the airfoil. Determine the chord

(in) if the camber equals 9.12 cm. 2pt

22.8

29.92

89.76

228: 89.76 inches di cm

44. An elliptical planform wing has a span of 12 m and a chord of 2 m. What is

the induced drag coefficient when the lift coefficient is 0.8? 2pt

0.034

0.43

0.068

0.034

45. Two identical aeroplanes A and B are flying horizontal steady turns. Further data are: Condition A W= 1500 kg Bank= 20 deg TAS= 130 kt Condition B

W= 1500 kg Bank= 20 deg TAS= 200 kt Which of the following statements is

correct? 2pt

A. The load factor for A is larger than the load factor for

C. The lift coefficient A is smaller than the lift coefficient

D. The rate of turn A is larger than the rate of Turn: Right Answer: D

D. The rate of turn A is larger than the rate of Turn

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46. How does the exterior view of an aircraft change, when the trim is used

during a speed decrease? 2pt

A. Elevator deflected downwards by means of a trimmable horizontal stabilizer

B. Nothing changes in exterior view

C. The elevator is deflected further downwards by means of an upwards

deflected trimtab

D. The elevator is deflected upwards by means of a downwards deflected

trimtab: D. The elevator is deflected upwards by means of a downwards deflected

trimtab

Method 1

“Trim” so need level flight

L = down V, up CL

up CL – El up, trim down

down V = elevator up = trim down

Speed will decrease in a nose-up attitude.High CL = 1/V low

47. VA is 2pt

A. The maximum speed at which rolls are allowed.

B. The speed that should not be exceeded in the climb.

C. The maximum speed at which maximum elevator deflection up is allowed.

D. The speed at which a heavy transport aircraft should fly in turbulence.: Right

C. The maximum speed at which maximum elevator deflection up is allowed.

48. Consider a rocket burning hydrogen and oxygen; the combustion chamber

pressure and temperature are 25 atm and 3,517 Kelvin, respectively. The area

of the rocket nozzle throat is 0.1 square meters.

The area of the exit is designed so that the exit pressure exactly equals

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ambient pressure at a standard altitude of 30 km. For the gas mixture assume

that k = 1.22 and the molecular weight M = 16. At a standard altitude of 30 km,

calculate exit Mach number. 2pt: 5.21

49. To be able to predict compressibility effects, you have to determine the 2pt

Mach Number

EAS

TAS

Mach Number

Compressibility effects become significant when the Mach number approaches or

exceeds 1.

50. Consider an oblique shock wave with ² = 35 deg and pressure ratio of

P2/P1=3. What is the upstream mach number? 2pt: 2.87

51. Effect of high density altitude to IAS and TAS: Indicated airspeed (IAS)

remains the same, the true airspeed (TAS) increases.

An increase in density altitude results in the following: Increased takeoff distance.

52. Which among the statements about Density Altitude is incorrect?

(2Pt)

A. Density altitude is found by correcting pressure altitude for temperature

and humidity deviations from the standard atmosphere

B. A high density altitude requires a higher true airspeed for takeoff and

landing and will therefore increase takeoff and landing distances

C. A high density altitude will decrease the power produced by an engine

because less oxygen is available for combustion

D. None, all statements above are correct: D. None, all statements above are

correct

53. Shock stall is: Separation of the boundary layer behind the shock wave.

54. When the Mach number is slowly increased in straight and level

flight the first shockwaves will occur (2Pt)

A. on the underside of the wing.

B. at the wing root segment, upperside.

C. somewhere on the fin.

D. somewhere on the hoizontal tail.: B. at the wing root segment, upperside.

55. If a symmetrical aerofoil is accelerated from subsonic to

supersonic speed the centre of lift will move _____. (2Pt)

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A. aft to the trailing edge

B. forward to the leading edge

C. aft to the mid chord

D. forward to the mid chord: C. aft to the mid chord

56. Fineness ratio is: fuselage length/max diameter

L/D

57. Upon which factor does wing loading during a level coordinated turn in

smooth air depend? (2Pt)

Angle of Attack

Rate of Turn

Angle of Bank

True Airspeed: Angle of Bank

“level” flight so n = 1

(1/cos theta) = L/W

58. The span-wise component of flow over the top surface of the wing

flows______. (2 Pt)

A. From wing-tip to root

B. Perpendicular to the wing upwards

C. From root to wing-tip

D. Along the free-stream direction: A. From wing-tip to root

Spanwise flow – vortex

If sinabing “spanwise flow” assume rectangular wing first, unless specified na swept

wing.

59. The quarter-chord moment coefficient for a cambered airfoil depends on

_________. (2Pt)

Chord Length

The shape of the airfoil

Angle of Attack

Center of pressure: B. The shape of the airfoil

Not chord length – Cma is always c/4.

The coefficient of moment about the quarter-chord is independent of angle of attack

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and chord length. It depends on the shape of the cambered airfoil (slope of the

camber line (dzdx)).

60. How to increase the critical angle of attack? (2Pt)

Reduce the camber

Increase the thickness

Increase the camber

Reduce the thickness: Reduce the camber

Draw CLa slope

61. At altitudes above sea-level, when flying at maximum velocity, the rate of

climb is (2Pt)

Beyond PE

Null

Equal to that at Max PE

Slightly below PE: Null

Aircraft is no longer generating any excess power.

The rate of climb at altitudes above sea level, when flying at maximum velocity, is

null, meaning it is zero. This is because at maximum velocity, the aircraft is using all

of its available power to overcome drag and maintain altitude, and there is no excess

power to be used for climbing.

62. Which kind of ‘tab’ is commonly used in case of manual reversion of fully

powered flight controls? (2Pt)

Spring tab

Servo tab

Balance tab

Anti-balance tab: Servo tab

The force applied by the pilot to the lever moves only the flap, and the flap also

moves the control surface until a balance is achieved. Even if external control locks

are placed on the control surface on the ground, the control commands in the cockpit

will be movable. This type of tab has been successfully used in old-style high-speed

jet transport aircraft, but their disadvantage is that they reduce the effectiveness of

the control surface at low IAS.

63. The tapering pipe is an example of __________. (2Pt)

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Non uniform – condition changes – taper

Tapering lang di converging

Conditions change from point to point in the stream but do not change with time. An

example is flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity at the inlet – velocity will

change as you move along the length of the pipe toward the exit.

64. Relative wind is defined as: (2 Pt)

A. The direction of the wind in relation to the chord line

B. The direction of the wind in relation to lift

C. The direction of the wind in relation to the airfoil

D. The direction of the wind in relation to the camber: C. The direction of the wind

in relation to the airfoil

The direction of the wind in relation to the AIRFOIL not chord line.

65. What is the expected duration of an individual microburst? (2Pt)

For as long as 1 hour

One microburst may continue for as long as 2 to 4 hours

Two minutes with maximum winds lasting approximately 1 minute

Seldom longer than 15 minutes from the time the burst strikes the ground

until dissipation: Seldom longer than 15 minutes from the time the burst strikes

the ground until dissipation

66. Why must the angle of attack be increased during a turn to maintain

altitude? (2 Pt)

A. Compensate for increase in drag

B. Compensate for loss of vertical component of lift

C. To prevent aircraft stall and increase lift

D. Increase the horizontal component of lift equal to the vertical component: B.

Compensate for loss of vertical component of lift

67. When you lower your flaps, stall speed _________. (2Pt)

decrease then increases

decrease

the same since

increase: decrease

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With flaps, you can fly at low speed

68. At zero angle of attack, the pressure along the upper surface of a symmetrical section would be

A. Greater than atmospheric pressure.

C. Less than atmospheric pressure.

B. Equal to atmospheric pressure .

D. Non existent: c. less than

69. What effect does an increase in airspeed have on a coordinated turn while

maintaining a

constant angle of bank and altitude?: B. rate of turn will decrease, no change in

70. What effect does an increase in airspeed have on a coordinated turn while

maintaining a constant angle of bank and altitude?

The rate of turn will ___ and the load factor is ___: The rate of turn will decrease

resulting in no changes in load factor

W = V/R to get n = c since theta = c

71. A highspeed aircraft has an upside-down airfoil on the root of its wing.

What does it compensate for?

Increased drag

Loss of lift: Increased drag

Not loss of lift – may negative lift (draw airfoil)

72. Under what condition is pressure altitude and density altitude the same

value?

A. When indicated and pressure altitude are the same value in the altimeter.

B. At standard temperature.: At standard temperature.

Density altitude is pressure altitude corrected for temperature (and humidity).

Same temp at – P alt and rho alt formula.

Density altitude is the pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperature and

pressure, it considers the air density, which is affected by temperature, pressure,

and humidity.

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73. As a result of gyroscopic precession, it can be said that any: yawing around

the normal axis results in a pitching moment.

74. The following are advantages of pusher type propellers except:

B. Lesser Possibility to experience FOD damage to propeller: B. Lesser Possibility to experience FOD damage to propeller

Raymer:

Pusher propeller is more likely to be damaged by FOD thrown by the WHEELS.

75. Flux across a given surface is defined as:

A. Net rate of outflow

B. mass of fluid

C. Rate of volume flow: C. Rate of volume flow

Flux of a quantity is the rate at which it is transported across a surface.

76. Best angle-of-climb speed with one engine inoperative: VXSE

77. The bow wave will appear first at:

A M= Mcrit

B M= 0.6

C M= 1.3

D M= 1.0: D M= 1.0

78. A bow wave is: A shockwave that forms immediately ahead of an aircraft at M=

or > 1

Starts to appear at M = 1

79. In propeller, the asymmetric thrust effect is mainly induced by:

A high angles of attack.

B high speed.

C large angles of yaw.

D large angles of climb: A. high angles of attack.

At low speed,

Faster too.

Kaya More thrust on right part ng prop = yaw left

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80. increase drag = __ glide angle: increase

81. When the blades of a propeller are in the feathered

position:

A the propeller produces an optimal windmilling RPM.

B the windmilling RPM is the maximum.

C the RPM is then just sufficient to lubricate the engine.

D the drag of the propeller is then minimal.: D the drag of the propeller is then

minimal.

82. Propeller efficiency may be defined as the ratio between:

A usable (power available) power of the propeller and shaft

power.

B the thrust and the maximum thrust.

C the usable (power available) power and the maximum power.

D the thermal power of fuel-flow and shaft power.: A usable (power available)

power of the propeller and shaft

power.

Wing need more lift

L up = V up

84. Which forces produce the necessary normal acceleration to make an

aircraft turn?

A) The vertical component of lift.

B) Centrifugal force.

C) The horizontal component of weight.

D) The horizontal component of lift.: D) The horizontal component of lift.

85. A swept wing aircraft stalls and the wake contacts the horizontal tail. What

would

be the stall behaviour?

a. Nose down.

b. Nose up and/or elevator ineffectiveness.

c. Tendency to increase speed after stall.

d. Nose up.: b. Nose up and/or elevator ineffectiveness.

swept wing is forward-ing cp – FOR TIP STALL

86. What is the effect of a decreasing aeroplane weight on

Mcrit at n=1, when flying at constant IAS ? The value of

Mcrit:

A is independent of the angle of attack.

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B decreases.

C increases.

D remains constant.: C increases.

1pn (1) = L/ W low

Need low din Lift to keep level flight = AOA down

= High Mcrit

Concept: Need higher Mach to fly heavy ACs

87. An airplane said to be inherently stable will

a. Be difficult to stall

b. Not spin

c. Requires less effort to control

d. Have the easier tendency to pitch up or down: c. Requires less effort to control

A stable airplane is easy to fly. require less effort to control .

88. The angle of incidence is set at what angle?

a. Angle of attack at Cl˜•“

b. Angle of attack at (L/D)˜•“

c. Afa

d. Fafa: b. Angle of attack at (L/D)˜•“

89. When is the blade angle and angle of attack equal in a propeller blade?

a. When the plane is idle.

b. During take off.

c. During cruising.

d. When the engine power is off.: a. When the plane is idle.

Equal hindi zero ( 0 at power off)

90. When are outboard aileron (if present) de-activated?

a. Landing gear retracted

b. Landing gear extended

c. Flaps retracted or speed above a certain value

d. Flaps extended or speed below a certain value: c. Flaps retracted or speed

above a certain value

BOTH Aileron & flaps – not used

91. Compared with flap up configuration, the maximum angle of attack for

flaps down configuration is

a. Larger

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b. Smaller

c. Unchanged

d. Smaller of larger depends on flap deflection: b. Smaller

Draw CLa graph

92. What can happen to the aeroplane flying at a speed exceeding the V•?

a. It will collapse if a turn is made

b. It may break the elevator if fully deflected

c. It may cause permanent damage because of the too large dynamic pressure

d. It may suffer permanent deformation if the elevator is fully deflected upwards: d. It may suffer permanent deformation if the elevator is fully deflected

upwards

Oxford

93. What wing shape of wing characteristics is the least sensitive to turbulence?

a. Straight wings

b. Swept wings

c. Winglets

d. Wing dihedral: b. Swept wings

Delay shockwave formation

More efficient at generating lift at higher speeds

by reduces the amount of induced drag over the wing.

94. An aeroplane with the CG location behind the center of pressure of the

wing can only maintain a straight and level flight when the horizontal tail

a. Upwards

b. Downwards

c. Zero

d. Upwards or downwards depending on elevator deflection: a. Upwards

95. Laminar flow is more likely to occur at:

a. High temperatures

b. High velocities

c. Low velocities

d. Low viscosities: c. Low velocities

Laminar flow is observed in high viscous fluids at low velocity.

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96. Flow separation at the

smallest angle of attack: shock stall

97. 6. What limits the high airspeed potential of a

helicopter?

a. harmonic resonance

b. Rotor RPM limitations

C.

d.

induced drag

98. Which of the following is true about boundary layer?

a. turbulent boundary layer is thinner

b. turbulent will separate more quickly than laminar

c. turbulent has more kinetic energy than laminar: c. turbulent has more kinetic

energy than laminar

clue: laging HIGHER sa turbulent

99. It is the mass of helicopter divided by area of rotor blades.

100. The boundary layer of the wing is caused by?

a. layer of the wing in which stream velocity is lower than free stream velocity,

due to friction

b. Normal Shockwave

c. turbulent stream

d. difference in air viscosity: a. “layer due to friction” – boundary layer

lower than V stream which is 0

101. What must you do to remain in formation as your aircraft takes on fuel

(increasing weight) from the tanker that is maintaining a

constant altitude and true airspeed?

A. Maintain a constant AOA and TAS

B. Decrease AOA and increase TAS

C. Increase AOA and maintain constant TAS

D. Increase AOA and TAS: d. Increase AOA and TAS

102. For a given altitude, what are the properties of the input provided by the

static pressure port in the pitot-static system?

A. The static pressure value will vary with changes in aircraft true airspeed

(TAS)

B. The static pressure value will vary with changes in aircraft angle of attack

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(AOA)

C. The static pressure value will vary with changes in aircraft weight

D. The static pressure value will vary with changes in atmospheric ambient

static pressure

and altitude: A. The static pressure value will vary with changes in aircraft true

airspeed (TAS)

103. What produces the most lift at low speeds?

(a) High camber (c) low aspect ratio

(b) Low camber (d) high aspect ratio: d. high AR

Cl a graph

104. Atmosphere is made of _________ of Argon.

a. 20.94 percent b. 78.08 percent

c. 0.001 percent d. 0.94 percent: d. 0.94

105. The propeller blade angle of

attack on a fixed pitch propeller

is increased when :

a. velocity and RPM decrease

o. RPM increases and forwara

velocity decreases

c. velocity and RPM increase

d. forward velocity increases and

RPM decreasing: B.. RPM increases and forward velocity decreases

106. In a twin-engined jet powered

aeroplane (engines mounted below

the low wings) the thrust is suddenly

increased. Which elevator deflection

will be required to maintain the

pitching moment zero ?

a. No elevator movement will required

because the thrust line of the engines

remains unchanged.

b. It depends on the position of the

center of gravity

c. Down

d. Up.: C. Down

Up Thrust = Up lift need nose down

107. The turn indicator shows a right turn.

The slip indicator is left of neutral. To

coordinate the turn:

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a. less right bank is required.

b. a higher turn rate is required.

c. more right bank is required

d. more right rudder is required: c. more right bank is required

108. Which statement is correct for a side

slip condition at constant speed and

side slip angle, where the geometric

dihedral of an aeroplane is increased ?

a. the required lateral control force

increases

b. the required lateral control force

decreases.: A. Increase

109. Which of the following wing planforms

gives the highest local profile lift

coefficient at the wingroot?

a. Rectangular.

b. Elliptical.

C. Tapered.

d. Positive angle of sweep.: A. Rectangle

110. Vortex generators on the upper side

of the wing:

a. increase critical Mach Number

b. decrease critical Mach Number

c, decrease wave drag: C. Decreases wave drag

111. In supersonic flight, all disturbances

produced by an aeroplane are:

a. in front of the aeroplane

b. very weak and negligible

c. in between a conical area,

depending on the Mach Number.

d. outside the conical area depending

on the Mach Number: C. In conical area

112. Changes in magnitude of total rotor thrust of the

main rotor during cruise are achieved by

a. Combining rotor speed change and blade pitch angle

b. Altering the pitch of the main rotor blades

collectively while the rotor speed is kept constant

c. Varying the speed of the main rotor, while the pitch

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d. Changing the speed of the air velocity around the

collectively while the rotor speed is kept constant

113. What equation is obtained when Mach number is equated to zero in

area-velocity relation?

a. Momentum equation

b. Continuity equation

c. Energy equation

d. Bernoulli’s equation: continuity

114. 6.

In single-engine helicopters, if so equipped, the throttle control is

1. a twist grip mounted on the collective control

a lever mechanism in fully governed systems

typically a twist grip mounted on the collective control, but it can also be a

lever mechanism in

fully governed systems

D. fully typically governed a twist grip systems mounted

on the cyclic control, but it can also be a lever mechanism in: c. twist grip, and

lever

115. changes in AOI equally and in the same direction on all rotor blades

simultaneously. this changes AOA, which changes coefficient of lift (CL) and

affects overall lift of rotor disk: collective feathering

SAME AOA

116. changes in blade’s angle of incidence differentially around the rotor disk

and creates differential lift. Basically, the AOA of each blades changes based

on where it is on the tip-path plane. Used to control attitude of rotor disk.: cyclic

feathering

DIF. AOI

117. Because a shock wave does no work, and there is no heat addition, the

total enthalpy and the total temperature are constant. But because the flow

is non-isentropic, the total pressure downstream of the shock is always less

than the total pressure upstream of the shock. There is a loss of total pressure

associated with a shock wave. The ratio of the total pressure is shown on the

slide. Because total pressure changes across the shock, we can not use the

usual (incompressible) form of Bernoulli’s equation across the shock.: true

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Po changes, kasi with loss of total P

non isentropic

118. 21. With zero wind, the angle of attack for minimum drag for an airplane

is that:

A. the total drag equals one-third of induced drag

B. the total drag is equals to twice the induced drag

C. the total drag equals four times the induced drag

D thetotal drag is one-half the induced drag: b. CDO = CDI

D = 2cdi

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1. density decreases, true speed of aircraft ___: increases

As air density decreases, the true airspeed of an aircraft increases due to the

reduced AIR RESISTANCE.

The aircraft needs to move faster to generate the same amount of lift. This relationship is why aircraft fly faster at higher altitudes, where the air is less dense.

2. 8. Which atmospheric conditions will cause the true landing speed of an

aircraft to be the greatest?

a. Low temperature with low humidity.

b. High temperature with low humidity.

C. High temperature with high humidity.

d.Low temperature with high humidity.:

C. High temperature with high humidity.

True airspeed (TAS) represents the true speed of an airplane through the air. As air

temperature and humidity increase, the density of the air decreases. As air density

decreases, true airspeed increases. Therefore, high temperature with high humidity

will cause an aircraft’s landing speed to be greatest.

3. 18. Frost covering the upper surface of an airplane wing will usually cause

a. The airplane to stall at an angle of attack that is higher than normal

b. The airplane to stall at an angle of attack that is lower than normal

c. Drag factors so large that sufficient speed cannot be obtained for take off

d. Coefficient of drag to increase abruptly:

b. The airplane to stall at an angle of

attack that is lower than normal

See CL a curve

4. 24. Recovery from a stall in any airplane becomes more difficult when its

Center of gravity moves aft

Center of gravity moves forward

Elevator trim is adjusted nose down Rudder travel is improperly adjusted: –

Center of gravity moves aft

If CG at aft (tail heavy) – tail force cant do downwards

Higher moment (high distance of CP and CG) = mas mahirap macontrol

5. 26. If airspeed is increased during a level turn, what action would be necessary to maintain altitude? The angle of attack

a. And angle of bank must be decreased

b. Must be increase or angle of bank decreased

c. Must be decreased or angle of bank increased

d. And angle of bank must be increased:

c. Must be decreased or angle of bank

increased

Va = Vs sqrt n

L = V2 CL formula relations

6. 40. If a single rotor helicopter is in forward horizontal flight, the angle of

a. equal to the retreating blade

b. more than the retreating blade

C. less than the retreating blade

C. less than the retreating blade

7. 42. It is an airfoil shaped attachment made of thin sheets of metal, plastic,

or composite material. This mount on the blade shanks and are primarily used

to increase the flow of cooling air to the engine nacelle.

Slinger ring

Townend Ring

8. Which force is not present during gliding? a. Thrust

b. Weight

c. Lift

d. Drag:

A. THRUST

Lift is the force that opposes the weight of an aircraft and keeps it in the air.

9. Compared with an oblique shock wave at the same Mach number a normal

shock wave has a:

a. Higher expansion

b. Smaller compression

c. Smaller expansion

d. Higher compression:

d. HIGHER COMPRESSION

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Kaya malaki pagbaba sa Mach number Compared to an oblique shock wave at the

same Mach number, a normal shock wave has a higher compression, which means

the flow is compressed more abruptly and the change in pressure and temperature

is greater.

10. An aerodynamic effect whereby the nose of an aircraft tends to pitch

downward as the airflow around the wing reaches supersonic speeds. CP

moves aft at high speed.: Mach tuck

11. It refers to the varying of wing chord using a uniform airfoil section

a. Airfoil Tapering

b. Planform Tapering

c. Section Tapering

d. Thickness Taperring:

B. Planform tapering

12. On what instance does negative pressure coefficient occurs?

a. When local velocity is higher than freestream velocity

b. When the dynamic pressure is twice the pressure difference.

c. When the freestream velocity is higher than local velocity

d. When the local pressure is greater than freestream pressure.:

A. When local V is higher

13. The minimum speed at which intentional engine failures are to be performed.: Safe single-engine speed (Vsse)

14. Higher induced angle of attack can be obtained by using

a. lower taper ratio

b. larger wing area

c. higher wing aspect ratio

d. lower wing aspect ratio:

D. Lower AR

Refer to CL vs AR graph

CL vs AOA – AR

15. When an airplane is at constant altitude bank, the stall speed will

a. remain the same as level flight condition.

b. increase as the square of the load factor

c. increase as the square root of the angle of bank

d. decrease as the square root of the load factor:

C. Va or Vs turn = Vs sqrt n

16. In what flight condition are torque effects more pronounced in a single-engine airplane?

a. Low airspeed, high power, high angle of attack.

b. Low airspeed, low power, low angle of attack.

c. High airspeed, high power, high angle of attack.

d. High airspeed, low power, high angle of attack.:

A. Low airspeed, high power,

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high angle of attack. Propeller is not generating as much thrust at low airspeed, so

the torque effect is more noticeable. The high power also contributes to the torque

effect, as the propeller is spinning faster and creating more torque. The high angle

of attack further exacerbates the torque effect, as the downwash from the wing is

pushing the propeller out of alignment with the engine.

17. When a blade flaps up, its CG will shift closer to the hub giving the blade

a tendency to?

a. speed up

b. slow down

c. stop

d. has no effect:

A. SPEED UP

Moment = FD When a blade flaps up, its CG will shift closer to the hub and will speed

up. This is because the blade is now rotating in a smaller circle, so it needs to move

faster to maintain the same angular momentum.

18. For the maneuvering performance of airplanes, it is advantageous to have

the smallest r and the smallest w obtainable by

a. Have the highest load factor and the lowest possible velocity

b. Have the lowest load factor and the highest possible velocity

c. Have the highest load factor and the highest possible velocity

d. Have the lowest load factor and the lowest possible velocity:

a. Have the highest load factor and the lowest possible velocity

R = V2/g dqrt n2 -1

19. In steady symmetrical flight conditions, it is also called as the vertical flight

speed component

a. Rate of Descent

b. Rate of Climb

c. Rate of Ascent

d. Rate of Dive:

A. Rate of Descent

L up = W down so bawal mag add ng Lift up, pwede lang down

20. Which maximum range factor decreases as weight decreases?

a. Stalling speed

b. altitude

C. airspeed d. angle of attack:

C. Airspeed Low

W = low L = low V

21. If airspeed is increased during a level turn, what action would be necessary

to maintain altitude? The angle of attack

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a. and angle of bank must be decreased

b. must be increased or angle of bank decreased

c. must be decreased or angle of bank increased

d. and angle of bank must be increased: c. must be decreased or angle of bank

increased

balance n = L / W

22. To obtain the Smallest R and Fastest w:

n and V ___: n be as High as possible

V be as Low as possible

23. To increase the rate of turn and at the same time decrease the radius, a

pilot should

a. maintain the bank and decrease airspeed

b. increase the bank and increase airspeed

c. increase the bank and decrease airspeed

d. maintain the bank and increase airspeed: c. increase the bank and decrease

airspeed

24. This principle supports that the pressure on the surface depends on the

angle of deflection and upstream conditions.

A, First Order Theory

B. Second Order Theory

C. First Order Approximation

D. Second Order Approximation: C. First Order Approximation

25. The aircraft is said to be trimmed if?

a. The moment of aerodynamic center is zero

b. The rotation at the center of pressure is zero

c. The rotation at the center of gravity is zero

d. The rotation at the geometric center is zero: c. The rotation at the center of

gravity is zero.

An aircraft is said to be trimmed if it is flying in a stable and equilibrium condition.

26. When the angle of attack of a symmetrical airfoil is increased, the center

of pressure will:

A. Have very limited movement

B. Move aft along the airfoil surface

C. Remain unaffected

D. Move forward to the leading edge: C. Unaffected

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27. If airspeed is increased during a level turn, what action would be necessary

to maintain altitude? The angle of attack

a. and angle of bank must be decreased b. must be increased or angle of bank

decreased

c. must be decreased or angle of bank increased

d. and angle of bank must be increased: c. must be decreased or angle of bank

increased

28. Airplane wing loading during a level coordinated turn in smooth air depends upon the

b. rate of turn

c. angle of bank

d. true airspeed: C. angle of bank

L = S (else is constant)

n = L/(W/S)

29. One of the main functions of flaps during the approach and landing is to

a. decrease the angle of descent without increasing the airspeed

b. provide the same amount of lift at a slower airspeed

c. decrease lift, thus enabling a steeper than normal approach to be made

d. provide a substantial increase in drag to aid in landing.: B. provide the same

amount of lift at a slower airspeed.

By extending the flaps, the wing area and camber are increased, which generates

more lift at a lower airspeed.

30. What is the purpose of helical twist?

*

A reduction in blade angle towards the propeller tip to maintain best

thrust/torque ratio

An increase in blade angle towards the propeller tip to maintain best

thrust/torque ratio

A reduction in blade angle towards the propeller tip to maintain 16° AoA for

An increase in blade angle towards the propeller tip to 16° AoA for the entire

blade length: A reduction in blade angle towards the propeller tip to maintain 16°

AoA for the entire blade length

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Low pitch sa tip, kasi high V na dito

31. What is used to correct any tendency of the aircraft to move towards an

undesirable flight altitude?

*

Trim tabs

Spring tabs

Slats

Balance tabs: “Trim” tabs

32. What must a pilot do to maintain a constant indicated airspeed (IAS) during

a climb?

A. Increase true airspeed (TAS) as altitude increases

B. Decease true airspeed (TAS) as altitude increases

C. Keep true airspeed (TAS) constant as altitude increases

D. Keep ground speed (GAS) constant as altitude increases: Increase true

airspeed (TAS) as altitude increases

during “climb”

33. This type of airfoil cross-sectional shape is considered to be the optimum

practical choice because it gives the least drag per unit stress.

*

Double Wedge

Biconvex

Diamond

Flat Plate: Biconvex

“least drag” – optimum choice

34. It shows the various combinations of horizontal and vertical speeds that

supply the required energy to keep the rotor turning at a constant rpm.

*

Autorotational Performance Chart

Hovering Performance Chart

Climb Performance Chart

H/V Diagram: Autorotational Performance Chart

35. In a fixed propeller, what happens to the angle of

attack of the blade if forward speed increases?

a. Goes to zero

b. Increases

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c. Decreases

d. Remains fixed: c. Decreases

Draw rpm, TAS triangle

36. Phugoid motion occurs at nearly constant __ with varying speeds.: AOA

37. Prevent an increase of the boundary layer at the wing tips of swept wings-

: Wing fence

38. What remains if the equipped empty weight of the

aircraft is subtracted from its zero fuel weight?

b. Ramp weight

c. Cargo

39. An increase in which of the following will result in an increase in air

viscosity?

Pressure

Density

Temperature

Weight: Temperature

See formula to get viscosity in certain temperature

40. The true airspeed (TAS) is _____. 2pt

A. higher than the speed of the undisturbed airstream about the aeroplane.

B. equal to the IAS, multiplied by the air density at sea level

C. lower than the speed of the undisturbed airstream about the aeroplane

D. lower than the indicated airspeed (IAS) at ISA conditions and altitudes

below sea level: D. lower than the indicated airspeed (IAS) at ISA conditions and

altitudes below sea level

At high alt = High tas = low IAS

Sea level = TAS = IAS

Lower SL = low TAS = high IAS (kasi compact density here)

41. Regarding curved deflecting angles, what happens to the vertical component of force as the angle of deflection increases?

Assuming that all the other parameters remain constant. 2pt

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A. Increases

B. Decreases

C. No relationship

D. Remains the same: A. Increases

Fv = pav2 sin theta

42. Where on the surface of a typical aerofoil will flow separation normally start

at high angles of attack? 2pt

lower side trailing edge

upper side trailing edge: upper side trailing edge

43. NACA 4412 was used in the construction of the airfoil. Determine the chord

(in) if the camber equals 9.12 cm. 2pt

22.8

29.92

89.76

228: 89.76 inches di cm

44. An elliptical planform wing has a span of 12 m and a chord of 2 m. What is

the induced drag coefficient when the lift coefficient is 0.8? 2pt

0.034

0.43

0.068

0.034

45. Two identical aeroplanes A and B are flying horizontal steady turns. Further data are: Condition A W= 1500 kg Bank= 20 deg TAS= 130 kt Condition B

W= 1500 kg Bank= 20 deg TAS= 200 kt Which of the following statements is

correct? 2pt

A. The load factor for A is larger than the load factor for

C. The lift coefficient A is smaller than the lift coefficient

D. The rate of turn A is larger than the rate of Turn: Right Answer: D

D. The rate of turn A is larger than the rate of Turn

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46. How does the exterior view of an aircraft change, when the trim is used

during a speed decrease? 2pt

A. Elevator deflected downwards by means of a trimmable horizontal stabilizer

B. Nothing changes in exterior view

C. The elevator is deflected further downwards by means of an upwards

deflected trimtab

D. The elevator is deflected upwards by means of a downwards deflected

trimtab: D. The elevator is deflected upwards by means of a downwards deflected

trimtab

Method 1

“Trim” so need level flight

L = down V, up CL

up CL – El up, trim down

down V = elevator up = trim down

Speed will decrease in a nose-up attitude.High CL = 1/V low

47. VA is 2pt

A. The maximum speed at which rolls are allowed.

B. The speed that should not be exceeded in the climb.

C. The maximum speed at which maximum elevator deflection up is allowed.

D. The speed at which a heavy transport aircraft should fly in turbulence.: Right

C. The maximum speed at which maximum elevator deflection up is allowed.

48. Consider a rocket burning hydrogen and oxygen; the combustion chamber

pressure and temperature are 25 atm and 3,517 Kelvin, respectively. The area

of the rocket nozzle throat is 0.1 square meters.

The area of the exit is designed so that the exit pressure exactly equals

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ambient pressure at a standard altitude of 30 km. For the gas mixture assume

that k = 1.22 and the molecular weight M = 16. At a standard altitude of 30 km,

calculate exit Mach number. 2pt: 5.21

49. To be able to predict compressibility effects, you have to determine the 2pt

Mach Number

EAS

TAS

Mach Number

Compressibility effects become significant when the Mach number approaches or

exceeds 1.

50. Consider an oblique shock wave with ² = 35 deg and pressure ratio of

P2/P1=3. What is the upstream mach number? 2pt: 2.87

51. Effect of high density altitude to IAS and TAS: Indicated airspeed (IAS)

remains the same, the true airspeed (TAS) increases.

An increase in density altitude results in the following: Increased takeoff distance.

52. Which among the statements about Density Altitude is incorrect?

(2Pt)

A. Density altitude is found by correcting pressure altitude for temperature

and humidity deviations from the standard atmosphere

B. A high density altitude requires a higher true airspeed for takeoff and

landing and will therefore increase takeoff and landing distances

C. A high density altitude will decrease the power produced by an engine

because less oxygen is available for combustion

D. None, all statements above are correct: D. None, all statements above are

correct

53. Shock stall is: Separation of the boundary layer behind the shock wave.

54. When the Mach number is slowly increased in straight and level

flight the first shockwaves will occur (2Pt)

A. on the underside of the wing.

B. at the wing root segment, upperside.

C. somewhere on the fin.

D. somewhere on the hoizontal tail.: B. at the wing root segment, upperside.

55. If a symmetrical aerofoil is accelerated from subsonic to

supersonic speed the centre of lift will move _____. (2Pt)

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A. aft to the trailing edge

B. forward to the leading edge

C. aft to the mid chord

D. forward to the mid chord: C. aft to the mid chord

56. Fineness ratio is: fuselage length/max diameter

L/D

57. Upon which factor does wing loading during a level coordinated turn in

smooth air depend? (2Pt)

Angle of Attack

Rate of Turn

Angle of Bank

True Airspeed: Angle of Bank

“level” flight so n = 1

(1/cos theta) = L/W

58. The span-wise component of flow over the top surface of the wing

flows______. (2 Pt)

A. From wing-tip to root

B. Perpendicular to the wing upwards

C. From root to wing-tip

D. Along the free-stream direction: A. From wing-tip to root

Spanwise flow – vortex

If sinabing “spanwise flow” assume rectangular wing first, unless specified na swept

wing.

59. The quarter-chord moment coefficient for a cambered airfoil depends on

_________. (2Pt)

Chord Length

The shape of the airfoil

Angle of Attack

Center of pressure: B. The shape of the airfoil

Not chord length – Cma is always c/4.

The coefficient of moment about the quarter-chord is independent of angle of attack

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and chord length. It depends on the shape of the cambered airfoil (slope of the

camber line (dzdx)).

60. How to increase the critical angle of attack? (2Pt)

Reduce the camber

Increase the thickness

Increase the camber

Reduce the thickness: Reduce the camber

Draw CLa slope

61. At altitudes above sea-level, when flying at maximum velocity, the rate of

climb is (2Pt)

Beyond PE

Null

Equal to that at Max PE

Slightly below PE: Null

Aircraft is no longer generating any excess power.

The rate of climb at altitudes above sea level, when flying at maximum velocity, is

null, meaning it is zero. This is because at maximum velocity, the aircraft is using all

of its available power to overcome drag and maintain altitude, and there is no excess

power to be used for climbing.

62. Which kind of ‘tab’ is commonly used in case of manual reversion of fully

powered flight controls? (2Pt)

Spring tab

Servo tab

Balance tab

Anti-balance tab: Servo tab

The force applied by the pilot to the lever moves only the flap, and the flap also

moves the control surface until a balance is achieved. Even if external control locks

are placed on the control surface on the ground, the control commands in the cockpit

will be movable. This type of tab has been successfully used in old-style high-speed

jet transport aircraft, but their disadvantage is that they reduce the effectiveness of

the control surface at low IAS.

63. The tapering pipe is an example of __________. (2Pt)

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Non uniform – condition changes – taper

Tapering lang di converging

Conditions change from point to point in the stream but do not change with time. An

example is flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity at the inlet – velocity will

change as you move along the length of the pipe toward the exit.

64. Relative wind is defined as: (2 Pt)

A. The direction of the wind in relation to the chord line

B. The direction of the wind in relation to lift

C. The direction of the wind in relation to the airfoil

D. The direction of the wind in relation to the camber: C. The direction of the wind

in relation to the airfoil

The direction of the wind in relation to the AIRFOIL not chord line.

65. What is the expected duration of an individual microburst? (2Pt)

For as long as 1 hour

One microburst may continue for as long as 2 to 4 hours

Two minutes with maximum winds lasting approximately 1 minute

Seldom longer than 15 minutes from the time the burst strikes the ground

until dissipation: Seldom longer than 15 minutes from the time the burst strikes

the ground until dissipation

66. Why must the angle of attack be increased during a turn to maintain

altitude? (2 Pt)

A. Compensate for increase in drag

B. Compensate for loss of vertical component of lift

C. To prevent aircraft stall and increase lift

D. Increase the horizontal component of lift equal to the vertical component: B.

Compensate for loss of vertical component of lift

67. When you lower your flaps, stall speed _________. (2Pt)

decrease then increases

decrease

the same since

increase: decrease

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With flaps, you can fly at low speed

68. At zero angle of attack, the pressure along the upper surface of a symmetrical section would be

A. Greater than atmospheric pressure.

C. Less than atmospheric pressure.

B. Equal to atmospheric pressure .

D. Non existent: c. less than

69. What effect does an increase in airspeed have on a coordinated turn while

maintaining a

constant angle of bank and altitude?: B. rate of turn will decrease, no change in

70. What effect does an increase in airspeed have on a coordinated turn while

maintaining a constant angle of bank and altitude?

The rate of turn will ___ and the load factor is ___: The rate of turn will decrease

resulting in no changes in load factor

W = V/R to get n = c since theta = c

71. A highspeed aircraft has an upside-down airfoil on the root of its wing.

What does it compensate for?

Increased drag

Loss of lift: Increased drag

Not loss of lift – may negative lift (draw airfoil)

72. Under what condition is pressure altitude and density altitude the same

value?

A. When indicated and pressure altitude are the same value in the altimeter.

B. At standard temperature.: At standard temperature.

Density altitude is pressure altitude corrected for temperature (and humidity).

Same temp at – P alt and rho alt formula.

Density altitude is the pressure altitude corrected for non-standard temperature and

pressure, it considers the air density, which is affected by temperature, pressure,

and humidity.

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73. As a result of gyroscopic precession, it can be said that any: yawing around

the normal axis results in a pitching moment.

74. The following are advantages of pusher type propellers except:

B. Lesser Possibility to experience FOD damage to propeller: B. Lesser Possibility to experience FOD damage to propeller

Raymer:

Pusher propeller is more likely to be damaged by FOD thrown by the WHEELS.

75. Flux across a given surface is defined as:

A. Net rate of outflow

B. mass of fluid

C. Rate of volume flow: C. Rate of volume flow

Flux of a quantity is the rate at which it is transported across a surface.

76. Best angle-of-climb speed with one engine inoperative: VXSE

77. The bow wave will appear first at:

A M= Mcrit

B M= 0.6

C M= 1.3

D M= 1.0: D M= 1.0

78. A bow wave is: A shockwave that forms immediately ahead of an aircraft at M=

or > 1

Starts to appear at M = 1

79. In propeller, the asymmetric thrust effect is mainly induced by:

A high angles of attack.

B high speed.

C large angles of yaw.

D large angles of climb: A. high angles of attack.

At low speed,

Faster too.

Kaya More thrust on right part ng prop = yaw left

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80. increase drag = __ glide angle: increase

81. When the blades of a propeller are in the feathered

position:

A the propeller produces an optimal windmilling RPM.

B the windmilling RPM is the maximum.

C the RPM is then just sufficient to lubricate the engine.

D the drag of the propeller is then minimal.: D the drag of the propeller is then

minimal.

82. Propeller efficiency may be defined as the ratio between:

A usable (power available) power of the propeller and shaft

power.

B the thrust and the maximum thrust.

C the usable (power available) power and the maximum power.

D the thermal power of fuel-flow and shaft power.: A usable (power available)

power of the propeller and shaft

power.

Wing need more lift

L up = V up

84. Which forces produce the necessary normal acceleration to make an

aircraft turn?

A) The vertical component of lift.

B) Centrifugal force.

C) The horizontal component of weight.

D) The horizontal component of lift.: D) The horizontal component of lift.

85. A swept wing aircraft stalls and the wake contacts the horizontal tail. What

would

be the stall behaviour?

a. Nose down.

b. Nose up and/or elevator ineffectiveness.

c. Tendency to increase speed after stall.

d. Nose up.: b. Nose up and/or elevator ineffectiveness.

swept wing is forward-ing cp – FOR TIP STALL

86. What is the effect of a decreasing aeroplane weight on

Mcrit at n=1, when flying at constant IAS ? The value of

Mcrit:

A is independent of the angle of attack.

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B decreases.

C increases.

D remains constant.: C increases.

1pn (1) = L/ W low

Need low din Lift to keep level flight = AOA down

= High Mcrit

Concept: Need higher Mach to fly heavy ACs

87. An airplane said to be inherently stable will

a. Be difficult to stall

b. Not spin

c. Requires less effort to control

d. Have the easier tendency to pitch up or down: c. Requires less effort to control

A stable airplane is easy to fly. require less effort to control .

88. The angle of incidence is set at what angle?

a. Angle of attack at Cl˜•“

b. Angle of attack at (L/D)˜•“

c. Afa

d. Fafa: b. Angle of attack at (L/D)˜•“

89. When is the blade angle and angle of attack equal in a propeller blade?

a. When the plane is idle.

b. During take off.

c. During cruising.

d. When the engine power is off.: a. When the plane is idle.

Equal hindi zero ( 0 at power off)

90. When are outboard aileron (if present) de-activated?

a. Landing gear retracted

b. Landing gear extended

c. Flaps retracted or speed above a certain value

d. Flaps extended or speed below a certain value: c. Flaps retracted or speed

above a certain value

BOTH Aileron & flaps – not used

91. Compared with flap up configuration, the maximum angle of attack for

flaps down configuration is

a. Larger

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b. Smaller

c. Unchanged

d. Smaller of larger depends on flap deflection: b. Smaller

Draw CLa graph

92. What can happen to the aeroplane flying at a speed exceeding the V•?

a. It will collapse if a turn is made

b. It may break the elevator if fully deflected

c. It may cause permanent damage because of the too large dynamic pressure

d. It may suffer permanent deformation if the elevator is fully deflected upwards: d. It may suffer permanent deformation if the elevator is fully deflected

upwards

Oxford

93. What wing shape of wing characteristics is the least sensitive to turbulence?

a. Straight wings

b. Swept wings

c. Winglets

d. Wing dihedral: b. Swept wings

Delay shockwave formation

More efficient at generating lift at higher speeds

by reduces the amount of induced drag over the wing.

94. An aeroplane with the CG location behind the center of pressure of the

wing can only maintain a straight and level flight when the horizontal tail

a. Upwards

b. Downwards

c. Zero

d. Upwards or downwards depending on elevator deflection: a. Upwards

95. Laminar flow is more likely to occur at:

a. High temperatures

b. High velocities

c. Low velocities

d. Low viscosities: c. Low velocities

Laminar flow is observed in high viscous fluids at low velocity.

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96. Flow separation at the

smallest angle of attack: shock stall

97. 6. What limits the high airspeed potential of a

helicopter?

a. harmonic resonance

b. Rotor RPM limitations

C.

d.

induced drag

98. Which of the following is true about boundary layer?

a. turbulent boundary layer is thinner

b. turbulent will separate more quickly than laminar

c. turbulent has more kinetic energy than laminar: c. turbulent has more kinetic

energy than laminar

clue: laging HIGHER sa turbulent

99. It is the mass of helicopter divided by area of rotor blades.

100. The boundary layer of the wing is caused by?

a. layer of the wing in which stream velocity is lower than free stream velocity,

due to friction

b. Normal Shockwave

c. turbulent stream

d. difference in air viscosity: a. “layer due to friction” – boundary layer

lower than V stream which is 0

101. What must you do to remain in formation as your aircraft takes on fuel

(increasing weight) from the tanker that is maintaining a

constant altitude and true airspeed?

A. Maintain a constant AOA and TAS

B. Decrease AOA and increase TAS

C. Increase AOA and maintain constant TAS

D. Increase AOA and TAS: d. Increase AOA and TAS

102. For a given altitude, what are the properties of the input provided by the

static pressure port in the pitot-static system?

A. The static pressure value will vary with changes in aircraft true airspeed

(TAS)

B. The static pressure value will vary with changes in aircraft angle of attack

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(AOA)

C. The static pressure value will vary with changes in aircraft weight

D. The static pressure value will vary with changes in atmospheric ambient

static pressure

and altitude: A. The static pressure value will vary with changes in aircraft true

airspeed (TAS)

103. What produces the most lift at low speeds?

(a) High camber (c) low aspect ratio

(b) Low camber (d) high aspect ratio: d. high AR

Cl a graph

104. Atmosphere is made of _________ of Argon.

a. 20.94 percent b. 78.08 percent

c. 0.001 percent d. 0.94 percent: d. 0.94

105. The propeller blade angle of

attack on a fixed pitch propeller

is increased when :

a. velocity and RPM decrease

o. RPM increases and forwara

velocity decreases

c. velocity and RPM increase

d. forward velocity increases and

RPM decreasing: B.. RPM increases and forward velocity decreases

106. In a twin-engined jet powered

aeroplane (engines mounted below

the low wings) the thrust is suddenly

increased. Which elevator deflection

will be required to maintain the

pitching moment zero ?

a. No elevator movement will required

because the thrust line of the engines

remains unchanged.

b. It depends on the position of the

center of gravity

c. Down

d. Up.: C. Down

Up Thrust = Up lift need nose down

107. The turn indicator shows a right turn.

The slip indicator is left of neutral. To

coordinate the turn:

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a. less right bank is required.

b. a higher turn rate is required.

c. more right bank is required

d. more right rudder is required: c. more right bank is required

108. Which statement is correct for a side

slip condition at constant speed and

side slip angle, where the geometric

dihedral of an aeroplane is increased ?

a. the required lateral control force

increases

b. the required lateral control force

decreases.: A. Increase

109. Which of the following wing planforms

gives the highest local profile lift

coefficient at the wingroot?

a. Rectangular.

b. Elliptical.

C. Tapered.

d. Positive angle of sweep.: A. Rectangle

110. Vortex generators on the upper side

of the wing:

a. increase critical Mach Number

b. decrease critical Mach Number

c, decrease wave drag: C. Decreases wave drag

111. In supersonic flight, all disturbances

produced by an aeroplane are:

a. in front of the aeroplane

b. very weak and negligible

c. in between a conical area,

depending on the Mach Number.

d. outside the conical area depending

on the Mach Number: C. In conical area

112. Changes in magnitude of total rotor thrust of the

main rotor during cruise are achieved by

a. Combining rotor speed change and blade pitch angle

b. Altering the pitch of the main rotor blades

collectively while the rotor speed is kept constant

c. Varying the speed of the main rotor, while the pitch

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d. Changing the speed of the air velocity around the

collectively while the rotor speed is kept constant

113. What equation is obtained when Mach number is equated to zero in

area-velocity relation?

a. Momentum equation

b. Continuity equation

c. Energy equation

d. Bernoulli’s equation: continuity

114. 6.

In single-engine helicopters, if so equipped, the throttle control is

1. a twist grip mounted on the collective control

a lever mechanism in fully governed systems

typically a twist grip mounted on the collective control, but it can also be a

lever mechanism in

fully governed systems

D. fully typically governed a twist grip systems mounted

on the cyclic control, but it can also be a lever mechanism in: c. twist grip, and

lever

115. changes in AOI equally and in the same direction on all rotor blades

simultaneously. this changes AOA, which changes coefficient of lift (CL) and

affects overall lift of rotor disk: collective feathering

SAME AOA

116. changes in blade’s angle of incidence differentially around the rotor disk

and creates differential lift. Basically, the AOA of each blades changes based

on where it is on the tip-path plane. Used to control attitude of rotor disk.: cyclic

feathering

DIF. AOI

117. Because a shock wave does no work, and there is no heat addition, the

total enthalpy and the total temperature are constant. But because the flow

is non-isentropic, the total pressure downstream of the shock is always less

than the total pressure upstream of the shock. There is a loss of total pressure

associated with a shock wave. The ratio of the total pressure is shown on the

slide. Because total pressure changes across the shock, we can not use the

usual (incompressible) form of Bernoulli’s equation across the shock.: true

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Po changes, kasi with loss of total P

non isentropic

118. 21. With zero wind, the angle of attack for minimum drag for an airplane

is that:

A. the total drag equals one-third of induced drag

B. the total drag is equals to twice the induced drag

C. the total drag equals four times the induced drag

D thetotal drag is one-half the induced drag: b. CDO = CDI

D = 2cdi

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