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Characteristics of Globalization and Contemporary World


Contemporary World – Introduces students by examining multifaceted phenom of globalization. 

– Examines the economic, social, political, and technological. 

– Provides an overview debates: Global Governance, Development, Sustainability.

– Circumstances & ideas of the present age. In modern times like these. 

– Using the various disciplines of the social sciences, it examines the economic, social, political, technological, and other transformations that have created an increasing awareness of the interconnectedness of peoples and places around the globe. – 195 countries and 7.6 billion people and counting. 

Globalization – According to sociologists, an on-going process involves interconnected changes in economic, cultural, social, and political spheres of the society. 

– Involves even-increasing integration of these aspects between nation, regions, communities, and isolated places. 

5 Characteristics of Globalization 

1. The expansion and intensification of social relations and consciousness across worldtime and across world-space. – Manfred Steger 

2. Globalization involves the creation of new social networks and the multiplication of existing connections. 

3. Expansion, stretching and acceleration of these networks. 

4. Intensification and acceleration of social exchanges and activities 

5. Globalization processes do not occur merely at an objective, material level but also involve the subjective plane of human consciousness.

Structures of Globalizations 

1. Economic Globalization – Increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world. – Rapid increase in cross-border movement. 

2. Political Globalization – On how to establish relationship to other country. – Refers to increasing trend toward multilaterism. 

3. Cultural Globalization – “Way of Life/Living” – Can be diversity 

– Interaction of cultures around the world that are becoming more and more similar. 

Advantages of Globalization 

1. Greater Understanding and Knowledge of many countries culture. 

2. Investment into developing country’s economy. 

3. Greater range and access to diff. products. 

4. Increased production of company due to great demands. 

5. Larger market Range 6. Job Creation 

7. Greater innovation, development products & technology 

8. Cheaper products 

Disadvantages of Globalization 

1. Outsourcing of Services to other countries. 

2. Possible increase in unemployment. 

3. Closure of small businesses. 

4. Degradation of Environment. 

5. Conflict between & among countries

Globalization Concept Map

Globalization – The trend toward greater interconnectedness and interdependence of all the countries of the world.

Social globalization regards to human cooperation and communication within a variety of cultural communities, covering points like family, religion, education and work. This integration has the consequence of countries losing their native culture.


Economic globalization is the growth of economic alliance and affiliation of countries’ economies across the world through the trading of goods, services, technologies and money. The countries’ economic situations can heavily depend on other allied countries.

Ex. Transnational comp: Walmart, coca-cola, mcdo


With financial globablization, global interconnectedness through a network of cities has become increasingly relevant for developing markets as they link financially with the rest of the world.

Ex. Stock markets are a great example of financial globalization because when one stock market has a decline, all the other stock markets get affected negatively too and so do the economies of the countries as a whole.


Governmental action takes place on a global level instead of a national level.

Nations are trending toward more international collaboration.

Responsibilities, such as the welfare of citizens and economic growth, are acted upon by an international political body.

Ex. United nations – intergovernmental org that promotes peace and international cooperation and security.


-Earth should be treated as one single ecosystem.

– We are all living on the same planet so we must protect it. what happens to the planet affects everybody on it.

Ex. Climate change, global warming


-Borderless world that is not controlled by countries bt by concerns and issues to help m ake the world a better place.

Ex. Global travel with cooperation of countries.


-Principles that certain attitidues/philosophy and ideal behaviors should exist everywhere.

Ex. Democracy


-Social globalization regards to human coopereation and communication within a variety of cultural communities, covering points life family, religion, education. This integration has the consequence of ncountries losing their native culture.

Ex. Facebook- connects ppl around the world, passing on the diverse cultures.


-helps to communicate with other ppl. Ex. www.

Introduction to the Study of Globalization

Differentiate the competing conceptions of globalization 

Steger – “ Globalization processes do not occur merely at an objective , material level but they also involve the subjective plane of human consciousness. Ex. People begin to feel that t that the world has become smaller, sending of email, etc.

1.The world-systems approach 

Based on the distinction between core, semi peripheral and peripheral countries in terms of their changing roles in the international division of labour dominated by the capitalist world-system. World-systems as a model in social science research, inspired by the work of Immanuel Wallerstein, has been developed in a large and continually expanding body of literature since the 1970s. The world-systems approach is not only a collection of academic writings but also a highly institutionalized academic enterprise. 

2. The global culture approach

Focuses on the problems that a homogenizing mass media-based culture poses for national identities. As we shall see below, this is complementary to, rather than in contradiction with, the global society approach, which focuses more on ideas of an emerging global consciousness and their implications for global community, governance and security.

Globo-localism – derives from a group of scholars from various countries and social science traditions whose main concern is to try to make sense of the multifaceted and enormously complex web of local-global relations. There is a good deal of overlap between this and the ‘globalization of culture’ model, but the globo-local researchers tend to emphasize the ‘territorial’ dimension.

3. The global society approach

Unified social community that encompasses the entire world. International trade, international politics, and even the sharing of culture. 

The idea that people are completely integrated with each other. It’s not that we don’t have differences; it’s that we all rely on the same community networks. Just think of the world as one gigantic, spherical city. Do you know everyone in your city? Probably not, and you probably don’t have everything in common with them either. However, you do rely on the same economy, the same cultural values, the same structures of government, and so forth. These things define a society, and we’re starting to see them emerge on a global scale.

We live in an international world, but it’s actually becoming more than that. An international world is defined by lots of interaction between different societies. Instead, we’re starting to develop a single global society, or a unified community on a world scale. This is largely a product of globalization, or the integration of international markets, politics, and cultures.

4. The global capitalism approach

Global capitalism is often seen in terms of impersonal forces (notably market forces, free trade) wreaking havoc on the lives of ordinary and defenseless people and communities. NSM theorists, despite their substantial differences, argue that the traditional response of the labor movement to global capitalism, based on class politics, has failed. In its place, a new analysis based on identity politics (notably of gender, sexualityethnicity, age, community, belief systems) has been developed, directed towards resistance to sexism, racism, environmental damage, war-mongering, capitalist exploitation and other forms of human rights abuses.


 Each of the four approaches to globalization has its own distinctive strengths and weaknesses. The world-system model tends to be economistic (minimizing the importance of political and cultural factors), but as globalization is often interpreted in terms of economic actors and economic institutions, this does seem to be a realistic approach.

Globalization of culture model, on the other hand, tends to be culturalist ( minimizing economic factors), but as much of the criticism of globalization comes from those who focus on the negative effects of homogenizing mass media and marketing on local and indigenous cultures, the culturalist approach has many adherents. 

World society model tends to be both optimistic and all-inclusive, an excellent combination for the production of world-views, but less satisfactory for social science research programmes.

Global capitalism model, by prioritising the global capitalist system and paying less attention to other global forces, runs the risk of appearing one-sided. However, the question remains: how important is that’one side’ (global capitalism)210

– Identify the underlying philosophies of the varying definitions of globalization


The Global Economy

Refers to the increasing integration of economies around the world particularly the movement of goods, services, and capital across borders.

-Considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account. 

Economy – The wealth and resources of a country or region, esp. in terms of the production and consumption of good and services.

Economic Globalization

-Historical process, the result of human innovation and technological pro-gress. It refers to the increasing integration of economies around the world, particularly through the movement of goods, services, and capital across borders. The term sometimes also refers to the movement of people (labor) and knowledge (technology) across international borders. 

Economic globalization – The International Monetary Fund (IMF) defines it as a historical process representing the result of human innovation and technological progress. ¬ According to the IMF, the value of trade (goods and services) as a percentage of world GDP increased from 42.1 percent in 1980 to 62.1 percent in 2007. ¬ Increased trade means that investments are moving all over the world at faster speeds.

– Identify the actors that facilitate economic globalization 

Interconnectedness dimension: 

1. globalization of trade of goods and services
2. globalization of financial and capital markets
3. globalization of technology and communication
4. globalization of production 

– Economic globalization is rather a qualitative transformation than just a quantitative change. quantitative change. 

Modern World System 

• Followed the crisis of the feudal system in Europe and helps explain the rise of Western Europe to world supremacy between 1450 to 1670 

• World economic system emerged 

• Now a global economy with a global political system (the modern interstate system) 

• Structured politically as interstate system – a system of competing and allying states 

• A single global economy composed of international trade and capital flows, transnational corporations that produce products on several continents, as well as all the economic transactions that occur within countries and at local levels. 

• Rise and fall of hegemonic powers

World-systems – unit with a single division of labor and multiple culture systems.

World-systems analysis calls for an unidisciplinary historical social science, and contends that the modern disciplines, products of the 19th century, are deeply flawed because they are not separate logics, as is manifest for example in the de facto overlap of analysis among scholars of the disciplines. 

– Articulate a stance on global economic integration

Market Integration

-Occurs when prices among diff locations or related goods follow similar patterns over a long period of time. 

– Groups of prices often move proportionally to each other and when is very clear among different markets. 

– Refers to the expansion of firms by consolidating additional marketing functions and activities under single management. 

– Ex. establishments of wholesaling facilities by food retailers and the setting up of another plant by a milk or processor. 

Types of Market Integration 

1. Horizontal Integration – Where marketing agencies combine to form a union to reduce their effective number and the extent of actual competition in the market. 

– Advantages 

∙ Lower Costs   ∙ Higher Efficiency 

∙ Increased Market Power ∙ Reduced Competition 

∙ Access to New Markets 

– Disadvantages: 

∙ Destroyed Value ∙ Reduced Flexibility 

2. Vertical Integration – Occurs when a firms performs more than one activity in the sequence of the marketing process. 

– Advantages: 

∙ Allows you to invest in assets that are highly specialized 

∙ Gives you more control of your Business 

∙ Requires lower cost of transactions 

∙ Provides more competitive advantages 

∙ Ensures a high level of certainty when it comes to equality.


∙ It can bring more difficulties 

∙ Requires huge amount of money 

∙ Creates barriers to market entry 

∙ Decrease in flexibility

– Explain the role of international financial institutions in the creation of a global economy

World Bank – Vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries – Made up of 186 member countries – Provide low interest loans – Est. 1944 in Washington, D.C 

– 3 Pillars of World Bank: 

∙ Results

 ∙ Reform 

∙ Resources

 International Monetary Fund – Started in 1944 in Bretton Woods Conference – Foster global monetary cooperation, etc. 

– Creates structural adjustment programs in less developing countries. World Trade Org. – Dealing with rules of trade bet. nations – Est. Jan 1, 1995 Geneva, Switzerland – 153 countries 

– Functions: 

∙ Administering WTO Trade agreements 

∙ Forum for trade Negotiations 

∙ Handling trade disputes 

∙ Monitoring national trade policies 

∙ Technical assistance and training for developing countries

 ∙ Cooperation with other international org

 – Narrate a short history of global market integration in the twentieth century

 – Identify the attributes of global corporation


Global – Pertaining to the entire globe rather than a specific region or country. Often used interchangeably with the term international, with one exception being in regards to mutual funds among the countries. 

Interstate – It is between the two or more states; between places or persons among the different states. Concerning or affecting two or more states politically or territorially. 

System – A regularly interacting group or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole.

– Explain the effects of globalization on governments 

– Identify the institutions that govern international relations

UNITED NATIONS- means each government pledges itself to cooperate with the government signatory hereto.

REGIONAL COMMISIONS – group of officials in different countries that are in charge in making laws.

Global Interstate System – It is a network wherein they have the control in high speed highways which has the authority in the national highways in USA. It was opened for the public to cross and deliver goods easily to other people as well to different nations. – It is also a structure of globalization wherein there 

are many organizations involve, they are the ones that complete the globalization namely: institutions that govern international relations, World Bank group, specialized agencies, and specialized international institutions. 

World Bank Group:

1. International Bank Reconstruction & Development (IBRD) : offer loans to middles class countries and improve their economy. 

2. International Development Association (IDA): provide loans and grant programs that boost economic growth. 

3. International Finance Corporation (IFC): provide loans for private sectors in developing countries. 

4. Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA): to promote foreign direct investment in developing countries. 

5. International Centre for Settlement of Investments Disputes (ICSID): forum for investors in most of international investments. 

6. International Monetary Fund (IMF): ensure the stability of international monetary system. WHO – World Health Org.

 ILO – International Labor Org. 

FAO – Food and Agriculture Org. 

UNESCO – United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Org. 

State – Community of persons more or less numerous, occupying a definite portion of a territory, independent form external control and possessing a government to which the great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience 

Elements of State 

1. People 2. Territory 3. Sovereignty 4. Government

 – Differentiate internationalism from globalism

International Relations -scholars of politics study this, it is about political, military, and other diplomatic engagements between two or more countries. 

Internationalization -a phenomenon -deepening of interactions between states – does not equal globalization, but a major part of globalization. United Nations -most prominent example of this organization -meeting ground of presidents

 Globalization -encompasses a multitude of connections and interactions that cannot be reduced to the ties between governments.

Task/ResultGlobalization is a result which is desired by the global economiesInternationalization is the task/process with which globalization can be achieved.
Set and SubsetGlobalization is the structure that people want to set up.Internationalization is part of that structure, hence can be termed as a subset of Globalisation
Related toGlobalization is more related to economies of the nationInternationalization is more related with the individual, firm or business for their goods and services
Factors that affectInfrastructural setup, telecommunications, logistics, etc. highly affects the globalization processCultural tastes and preferences, Local traditions, etc. plays a major role in the internationalization
ExampleEliminating 1. visa obligations for visitors, 2. tariff and non-tariff trade barriers, 3. Liberalization of investment regulations etc.Sourcing, producing and selling materials from one or more countries, set up of branch or subsidiaries in other countries for carrying out business, etc.
ProcessIt is an economic processIt is an improvisation process
Organizations handleInternational Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Trade Organisations, etc. are handling globalization implementationEuropean Union, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, North American Free Trade Agreement, etc. work for boosting the Internationalization.

Contemporary Global Governance

functions of the United Nations

6 Main Organs of UN 

1. General Assembly – Main deliberative organ of the UN comprised of all member states, each of which has one vote. – Its resolutions are only recommendations to the Member States, but as they represent the majority of the world’s view they carry heavy moral weight and often lead countries to join international agreements called treaties. 

2. Security Council – Has primary responsibility under the UN Charter to maintain international peace and security. Unlike the Gen. Assembly, the Security Council does not hold regular meetings. It can be conveyed anytime, whenever international peace is threatened. – Per Lasson Khrog (Jun 18 1889-Mar 3 1965) was a Norwegian artist. He is most frequently associated with the mural he created for the United Nations Security Council Chamber, located in the United Nations building in New York City. 

3. United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) – ECOSOC brings people and issues together to promote collective action for a sustainable world – At the centre of the UN development system, we conduct cutting-edge analysis, agree on global norms and advocate for progress. – Central body for coordinating the economic and social work of the United Nations and the UN System. 

4. The Trusteeship Council – The system was created at the end of the World War II to promote the advancement of the inhabitants of those dependent Territories and their progressive development towards selfgovernance or independence. – Council is comprised of the permanent members of the Security Council— China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States. 


5. The International Court of Justice – Is the UN’s main judicial organ, located in The Hague, Netherlands. Established in 1945, the ICJ, or “World Court” assumed its functions in 1946. The Court settles legal disputes only between nations and not between individuals, in accordance with international law. 

6. The Secretariat – The Secretariat is made up of an international staff working at UN Headquarters in New York, as well as UN offices in Geneva, Vienna, Nairobi and other locations.

 – Identify the challenges of global governance in the twenty-first century

– Explain the relevance of the state amid globalization

If the state refers to a country or nation, then its relevance in geopolitical terms will remain the same for a while. Any change that happens will be gradual and unnoticed. These trade deals are tricky since giant corporations that run everything do have the power to control governments in subtle ways. 

There are agreements signed by parties that allow corporations to sue governments if their needs aren’t met. For example, a contract may be signed by the two sides (the state and company) wherein if the workers of an international company decided to conduct a demonstration or a boycott, that company has the right to sue the host government for billions, which will be paid by the taxpayers by way of government reducing social services. 

These tactics are unknown to the public and may even refuse to believe it if you told them that. These trade contracts involve more than employee boycotts, they include power failures, failure of logistics like unpaved roads which cause trucking delays, and almost anything that slows down their operation. And since politicians are generally crooked individuals, they eagerly sign these contracts after a hefty bribe from a company. Politicians then pass laws that are in favor of the companies and not the people, and this is when oligarchy begins, the state and the companies become partners against the people. If the people aren’t careful and allow this to go on for decades, the country will be left all sucked up and dry by this alliance.

        So, a State has relevance in the beginning, but as we see, things could go bad if the public isn’t aware, which is mostly the case. This is why we see poverty and wars in nations that rich in resources. This is why it is important to elect leaders that clearly cares about the people.


Global Divides: The North and the South (focus on Latin America)

– Differentiate the Global South from the Third World

 – Analyze how a new conception of global relations emerged from the experiences of Latin American countries

Global North – Include the U.S.A, Canada, Europe,, developed parts of Asia, as well as Australia and New Zealand. 

– Defined as the richer, more developed region. 

– 95% of the North has enough food and shelter.

Global South – Is made up of Africa, Latin America, and developing Asia including the Middle East. 

– South largely corresponds with the 3rd World.

Asian regionalism

Differentiate between regionalization and globalization 

Regionalization – Societal integration and often indirected process of social and economic integration. 

– End result of regionalism.

Regionalism – Emergent, socially constituted phenomenon. ¬ Set of conscious activities 

Globalization – set of multiple, uneven & overlapping historical processes including eco, politics & culture, that have combined with the evolution of media, technology to create the conditions under which the globe itself can now be understood as “an imagined community” (global village).

  • relies on media as its main conduit for spread of global culture and ideas.

Identify the factors leading to a greater integration of the Asian region

Analyze how different Asian states confront the challenges of globalization and regionalization

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