The Oxford English Dictionary defines communication as “the imparting, conveying, or exchange of ideas, knowledge and information’. This can apply to words or body language. two-way process of giving and receiving information through any number of channels
Offers potential barriers to successful communication
Encoding – process of taking msg and transferring it into the proper format for sharing it with others. Need to know audience and endure that msg provides info needed.
Channel – method of com (face-to-face/mail/tel)
Decoding – receive msg, requires audience has the means to understand info.
Feedback – gauge how successful the com.
Context – situation (ex. Talking w/ ur boss) relationship w/ audience, the culture of your organization and general environment. Helps determine the tone and style of com.
n effective communication system is based on the following principles:
(1) Principle of Clarity in Ideas:
First of all it should be clear in the mind of the sender as to what he wants to say. According to Terry the principle of effective communication is ‘first to fully inform oneself.’ The clearer the thought the more effective is the communication.
(2) Principle of Appropriate Language:
According to this principle, the communication should always be in a simple language. Ideas should be clear and be devoid of any doubt. Technical words and words having various meanings should be used to the minimum.
(3) Principle of Attention:
The purpose of communication is that the receiver of information should clearly understand its meaning. It means merely transferring information is not communication and it is important that the receiver should understand it. This is possible only when the receiver takes interest in the message and listens to it attentively.
(4) Principle of Consistency:
According to this principle, communication system should maintain consistency in the objectives of the enterprise, its procedures and processes. It means communication should be in accordance with the policies laid down for it.
(5) Principle of Adequacy:
The information sent to the receiver should be sufficient and complete in every respect. Information more than the need or less than the need is harmful. In the context of business incomplete information is dangerous. The sufficiency of information depends on the ability of the receiver. If the receiver happens to be capable more information can be given with the help of a few words. On the contrary, in case of a less capable receiver more details are needed.
(6) Principle of Proper Time:
The messages should reach the receiver whenever they are needed. Late messages are meaningless and the utility of communication is ended. Hence, the message should be sent before the actual need keeping in mind the time required for communication.
(7) Principle of Informality:
Formal communication has a prominent place among the channels of communication but informal communication is not less important. There are some problems which cannot be solved with formal communication but informal communication does succeed in solving them. Therefore, informal communication should also be given recognition in the organisation.
(8) Principle of Feedback:
It is essential for the sender of the message that he should know about the success of the message. It means that he should see whether the receiver has understood the message or not. Feedback is easily obtained in a face to face communication with the help of the facial reactions of the receiver. In the written communication the sender can get the feedback by using appropriate means.
(9) Principle of Integration:
Communication should be able to introduce all the employees in the enterprise with its objectives so that all the employees move unitedly towards the goal.
(10) Principle of Consultation:
The suggestions of all the persons concerned should be invited while making plans for communication. The obvious benefit of such a move will be that all those who are invited while making plans for communication and taken into confidence will contribute to the success of the communication system. Planning for communication aims at determining as to when, how and through what medium communication is to be done among people working at different levels.
(11) Principle of Flexibility:
Communication system should be able to absorb the changes in the organisation. A communication system that cannot absorb changes according to the need becomes meaningless.
(12) Principle of Economy:
Communication system should not be unnecessarily costly. As far as possible unnecessary messages should be reduced to the minimum to make communication economical. No single employee should be burdened with the work of communication.
(13) Principle of Proper Medium:
In order to make communication effective it is necessary not only to have clarity of ideas, consistency and completeness but also to make a proper choice of medium. For example- the managers should make use of oral communication for individual communication and written communication for policy matters.
Effective communication means communication free from barriers. Though ideal communication free from all barriers is seldom achieved, communicators should acquire communication skills and enhance effectiveness of their communication.
- The principle governing communication, the right and wrong aspects of it, the moral- immoral dimensions relevant to Interpersonal communication are called the ethics of Interpersonal communication.
- 6. COMMUNICATION ETHICS′ Maintaining the correct balance between the speaking and listening′ the legitimacy of fear and emotional appeal′
Ten Basics of Ethical Communication
- Seek to “elicit the best” in communications and interactions with other group members.
- Listen when others speak.
- Speak non-judgmentally.
- Speak from your own experience and perspective, expressing your own thoughts, needs, and feelings.
- Seek to understand others (rather than to be “right” or “more ethical than thou”).
- Avoid speaking for others, for example by characterizing what others have said without checking your understanding, or by universalizing your opinions, beliefs, values, and conclusions, assuming everyone shares them.
- Manage your own personal boundaries: share only what you are comfortable sharing.
- Respect the personal boundaries of others.
- Avoid interrupting and side conversations.
- Make sure that everyone has time to speak, that all members have relatively equal “air time” if they want it.
Types of communication
This involves the use of language and words for the purpose of passing on the intended message. In general terms, Verbal Communication means communication in the form of spoken words only. But, in the context of types of communication, verbal communication can be in the spoken or the written form. Thus, the verbal form may be oral or written as discussed below.
- Written Communication: This kind of communication involves any kind of exchange of information in the written form. For example, e-mails, texts, letters, reports, SMS, posts on social media platforms, documents, handbooks, posters, flyers, etc.
- Oral Communication: This is the communication which employs the spoken word, either direct or indirect as a communication channel. This verbal communication could be made on a channel that passes information in only one form i.e. sound.
You could converse either face to face, or over the phone, or via voice notes or chat rooms, etc. It all comes under the oral communication. This form of communication is an effective form.
In this type of communication, messages are relayed without the transmission of words. The messages here are wordless messages. This form of communication mainly aides verbal communication. It supplements it with gestures, body language, symbols, and expressions.
Through these, one may communicate one’s mood, or opinion or even show a reaction to the messages that are relaying. One’s non-verbal actions often set the tone for the dialogue. You can control and guide the communication if you control and guide the non-verbal communication. Some of the modes of non-verbal communication are:
Physical Non-verbal Communication
This is the sum total of the physically observable. For instance, hand gestures, body language, facial expressions, the tone of one’s voice, posture, stance, touch, gaze, and others. Several researchers have revealed that physical nonverbal communication constitutes about 55% of our daily communications.
These are subtle signals that are picked up as part of our biological wiring. For example, if you rest your head on your palms, it will mean that you are very disappointed or angry. Similarly, other subtle hints will convey your reaction to the presenter or your audience’s reaction to you.
This is the art of reading between the lines. The main kind of such communication is done with the tone of one’s voice. This kind of communication amounts to almost 38% of all the communication that we do every day. Along with the tone of voice, the style of speaking, voice quality, stress, emotions, or intonation serves the purpose of communication. And, these aspects are not verbal.
Art is an important means of communication. Through the paintings or other forms of art, an artist can covey the strongest messages. Several times in the history of the world, art has been used as an effective form of nonverbal communication.
The first impression sets the tone. People will react to your appearance and this is a fact of life. Your clothes, the color of the fabrics, etc. all determine the reaction of your audience.
This is communication through visual aids like drawings, placards, presentations, and illustrations, etc.