# ATPL – Fundamental Aerodynamics Reviewer

Here are sample exercises from FAA, Oxford ATPL, and other aerodynamic questions.

1. Constant CAS Below Sea Level:
• At a constant CAS when flying below sea level, an aircraft will have a lower TAS than at sea level at ISA conditions.
• Answer: b. a lower TAS than at sea level at ISA conditions.
1. TAS Definition:
• TAS is lower than IAS at ISA altitudes below sea level.
• Answer: c. lower than IAS at ISA altitudes below sea level.
1. IAS and TAS Difference:
• The difference between IAS and TAS will decrease with decreasing altitude.
• Answer: d. decrease with decreasing altitude.
1. Bernoulli’s Theorem:
• Bernoulli’s Theorem states that dynamic pressure increases and static pressure decreases.
• Answer: b. dynamic pressure increases and static pressure decreases.
1. Effect of Increased Temperature on Airflow:
• If the temperature of the air in the tube is raised, the mass flow remains constant, and the velocity V will increase.
• Answer: d. the mass flow remains constant and the velocity V will increase.
1. Symmetrical Aerofoil at CL = 0:
• A symmetrical aerofoil section at CL = 0 will produce zero pitching moment.
• Answer: c. Zero pitching moment.
1. Angle of Attack Definition:
• Angle of attack is the angle between undisturbed airflow and chord line.
• Answer: a. undisturbed airflow and chord line.
1. Lift and Drag Forces on Aerofoil:
• Lift and drag forces on an aerofoil section both depend on the pressure distribution on the aerofoil section.
• Answer: b. they both depend on the pressure distribution on the aerofoil section.
1. Factors Creating Lift:
• An aerofoil in a high-speed flow creates lift.
• Answer: b. An aerofoil in a high-speed flow.
1. Greatest Factor Causing Lift:
• Suction above the wing is the greatest factor causing lift.
• Answer: a. Suction above the wing.
2. Influence of Ground Effect on Landing:
• Ground effect increases landing distance.
• Answer: a. increase landing distance.
3. Lift Curve Intersecting Vertical CL Axis:
• On an angle of attack versus coefficient of lift graph for a cambered aerofoil, the lift curve intersects the vertical CL axis above the point of origin.
• Answer: a. above the origin.
4. Effect of Flaps on Induced Drag:
• Induced drag stays the same when flaps are deployed in straight and level flight at constant IAS.
• Answer: d. stays the same.
5. Pitching Moment with Fowler Flaps on High-Tail Aircraft:
• Fowler flaps deployed on a high-tail aircraft generate a nose-down pitching moment.
6. Flaps and Pitching Moment in Straight and Level Flight:
• Flaps’ effect on pitching moment depends on CG position.
7. Slat Purpose on Leading Edge:
• A slat increases the energy of the boundary layer, increases the maximum angle of attack, and moves CLMAX to a higher angle of attack.
• Answer: d. increases the energy of the boundary layer and increases the maximum angle of attack.
8. Stall Speed Comparison with Flaps:
• Stall speed decreases with flaps down compared to flaps up.
9. High-Speed Stall Definition:
• A high-speed stall is a stall due to decreasing CLMAX at speeds above M 0.4.
• Answer: c. A stall due to decreasing CLMAX at speeds above M 0.4.
10. Aircraft Prone to Super Stall:
• A swept-back wing aircraft is most prone to super stall.
11. Designation of Stall Speed in Landing Configuration:
• VSO is the correct designation of stall speed in the landing configuration.
12. Effect of Ice Formation:
• Ice formation causes a reduction in CLMAX.
• Answer: d. Reduction in CLMAX.
13. Effect of Slats on Wing Leading Edge:
• Slats increase the energy of the boundary layer, increase suction peak on the main wing section, and move CLMAX to a higher angle of attack.
• Answer: c. increase boundary layer energy, increase suction peak on main wing section, move CLMAX to a higher angle of attack.
14. Stall Behavior with Fowler Flaps and Slat:
• In a swept-wing aircraft with Fowler flaps and slats, the stall behavior is nose up and/or elevator ineffectiveness.
• Answer: b. Nose up and/or elevator ineffectiveness.
15. Aileron Neutral During Erect Spin Recovery:
• Ailerons should be held neutral during erect spin recovery.
• Answer: b. ailerons held neutral.
16. Stalling Speed in Turn Proportional to:
• Stalling speed in a turn is proportional to the square root of the load factor.
17. Factors Affecting Stalling Speed:
• Stalling speed increases when recovering from a steep dive.
• Answer: a. recovering from a steep dive.
18. CP Movement on Swept Wing Due to Tip Stall:
• The CP on a swept wing aircraft moves forward due to tip stall of the wing.
• Answer: b. tip stall of the wing.
19. Decreasing Sweep Angle Effect on Stall Speed:
• Decreasing sweep angle decreases stall speed.
20. Effect of Flaps on Stall Speed:
• Stall speed decreases with flaps down compared to flaps up.
21. High-Speed Stall Definition:
• A high-speed stall is a stall due to decreasing CLMAX at speeds above M 0.4.
• Answer: c. A stall due to decreasing CLMAX at speeds above M 0.4.
22. Aircraft Prone to Super Stall:
• A swept-back wing aircraft is most prone to super stall.
23. Designation of Stall Speed in Landing Configuration:
• VSO is the correct designation of stall speed in the landing configuration.
24. Effect of Ice Formation:
• Ice formation causes a reduction in CLMAX.
• Answer: d. Reduction in CLMAX.
25. Effect of Slats on Wing Leading Edge:
• Slats increase the energy of the boundary layer, increase suction peak on the main wing section, and move CLMAX to a higher angle
of attack.
• Answer: c. increase boundary layer energy, increase suction peak on main wing section, move CLMAX to a higher angle of attack.
26. Stall Behavior with Fowler Flaps and Slat:
• In a swept-wing aircraft with Fowler flaps and slats, the stall behavior is nose up and/or elevator ineffectiveness.
• Answer: b. Nose up and/or elevator ineffectiveness.
27. Aileron Neutral During Erect Spin Recovery:
• Ailerons should be held neutral during erect spin recovery.
• Answer: b. ailerons held neutral.
28. Stalling Speed in Turn Proportional to:
• Stalling speed in a turn is proportional to the square root of the load factor.
29. Factors Affecting Stalling Speed:
• Stalling speed increases when recovering from a steep dive.
• Answer: a. recovering from a steep dive.
30. CP Movement on Swept Wing Due to Tip Stall:
• The CP on a swept wing aircraft moves forward due to tip stall of the wing.
• Answer: b. tip stall of the wing.
31. Decreasing Sweep Angle Effect on Stall Speed:
• Decreasing sweep angle decreases stall speed.
32. Effect of Flaps on Stall Speed:
• Stall speed decreases with flaps down compared to flaps up.
33. High-Speed Stall Definition:
• A high-speed stall is a stall due to decreasing CLMAX at speeds above M 0.4.
• Answer: c. A stall due to decreasing CLMAX at speeds above M 0.4.
34. Aircraft Prone to Super Stall:
• A swept-back wing aircraft is most prone to super stall.
35. Designation of Stall Speed in Landing Configuration:
• VSO is the correct designation of stall speed in the landing configuration.
36. Effect of Ice Formation:
• Ice formation causes a reduction in CLMAX.
• Answer: d. Reduction in CLMAX.
37. Effect of Slats on Wing Leading Edge:
• Slats increase the energy of the boundary layer, increase suction peak on the main wing section, and move CLMAX to a higher angle of attack.
• Answer: c. increase boundary layer energy, increase suction peak on main wing section, move CLMAX to a higher angle of attack.
38. Stall Behavior with Fowler Flaps and Slat:
• In a swept-wing aircraft with Fowler flaps and slats, the stall behavior is nose up and/or elevator ineffectiveness.
• Answer: b. Nose up and/or elevator ineffectiveness.
39. Aileron Neutral During Erect Spin Recovery:
• Ailerons should be held neutral during erect spin recovery.
• Answer: b. ailerons held neutral.
40. Stalling Speed in Turn Proportional to:
• Stalling speed in a turn is proportional to the square root of the load factor.
41. Factors Affecting Stalling Speed:
• Stalling speed increases when recovering from a steep dive.
• Answer: a. recovering from a steep dive.
42. CP Movement on Swept Wing Due to Tip Stall:
• The CP on a swept wing aircraft moves forward due to tip stall of the wing.
• Answer: b. tip stall of the wing.
43. Decreasing Sweep Angle Effect on Stall Speed:
• Decreasing sweep angle decreases stall speed.
44. Effect of Flaps on Stall Speed:
• Stall speed decreases with flaps down compared to flaps up.
45. High-Speed Stall Definition:
• A high-speed stall is a stall due to decreasing CLMAX at speeds above M 0.4.
• Answer: c. A stall due to decreasing CLMAX at speeds above M 0.4.
46. Aircraft Prone to Super Stall:
• A swept-back wing aircraft is most prone to super stall.
47. Designation of Stall Speed in Landing Configuration:
• VSO is the correct designation of stall speed in the landing configuration.
48. Effect of Ice Formation:
• Ice formation causes a reduction in CLMAX.
• Answer: d. Reduction in CLMAX.
49. Effect of Slats on Wing Leading Edge:
• Slats increase the energy of the boundary layer, increase suction peak on the main wing section, and move CLMAX to a higher angle of attack.
• Answer: c. increase boundary layer energy, increase suction peak on main wing section, move CLMAX to a higher angle of attack.
50. Stall Behavior with Fowler Flaps and Slat:
• In a swept-wing aircraft with Fowler flaps and slats, the stall behavior is nose up and/or elevator ineffectiveness.
• Answer: b. Nose up and/or elevator ineffectiveness.
51. Aileron Neutral During Erect Spin Recovery:
• Ailerons should be held neutral during erect spin recovery.
• Answer: b. ailerons held neutral.
52. Stalling Speed in Turn Proportional to:
• Stalling speed in a turn is proportional to the square root of the load factor.
53. Factors Affecting Stalling Speed:
• Stalling speed increases when recovering from a steep dive.
• Answer: a. recovering from a steep dive.
54. CP Movement on Swept Wing Due to Tip Stall:
• The CP on a swept wing aircraft moves forward due to tip stall of the wing.
• Answer: b. tip stall of the wing.
55. Decreasing Sweep Angle Effect on Stall Speed:
• Decreasing sweep angle decreases stall speed.